Some scientists became skeptical of eugenics as time went on, but much of the opposition to eugenics came from traditional religious communities, especially Catholics and some evangelical Protestants. In 1930, Pope Pius XI issued the encyclical Casti Connubi, which condemned eugenics. By contrast, more theologically liberal clergy often supported eugenics.
“Catholics and Eugenics: A Little-Known History” (Article/National Catholic Reporter)
Preaching Eugenics: Religious Leaders and the American Eugenics Movement by Christine Rosen (Book)
“Interview with Christine Rosen” (Interview/Center for Bioethics and Culture Network)